Справка:Lua/LPeg/English
IntroductionEdit
LPeg is a new patternmatching library for Lua, based on Parsing Expression Grammars (PEGs). This text is a reference manual for the library. For a more formal treatment of LPeg, as well as some discussion about its implementation, see A Text PatternMatching Tool based on Parsing Expression Grammars. (You may also be interested in my talk about LPeg given at the III Lua Workshop.)
Following the Snobol tradition, LPeg defines patterns as firstclass objects. That is, patterns are regular Lua values (represented by userdata). The library offers several functions to create and compose patterns. With the use of metamethods, several of these functions are provided as infix or prefix operators. On the one hand, the result is usually much more verbose than the typical encoding of patterns using the so called regular expressions (which typically are not regular expressions in the formal sense). On the other hand, firstclass patterns allow much better documentation (as it is easy to comment the code, to break complex definitions in smaller parts, etc.) and are extensible, as we can define new functions to create and compose patterns.
For a quick glance of the library, the following table summarizes its basic operations for creating patterns:
Operator  Description 

lpeg.P(string)

Matches string literally

lpeg.P(n)

Matches exactly n characters

lpeg.S(string)

Matches any character in string (Set)

lpeg.R("xy")

Matches any character between x and y (Range) 
patt^n

Matches at least n repetitions of patt

patt^n

Matches at most n repetitions of patt

patt1 * patt2

Matches patt1 followed by patt2

patt1 + patt2

Matches patt1 or patt2 (ordered choice)

patt1  patt2

Matches patt1 if patt2 does not match

patt

Equivalent to (""  patt)

#patt

Matches patt but consumes no input

lpeg.B(patt)

Matches patt behind the current position, consuming no input

As a very simple example,
lpeg.R("09")^1
creates a pattern that
matches a nonempty sequence of digits.
As a not so simple example,
lpeg.P(1)
(which can be written as lpeg.P(1)
,
or simply 1
for operations expecting a pattern)
matches an empty string only if it cannot match a single character;
so, it succeeds only at the end of the subject.
LPeg also offers the re
module,
which implements patterns following a regularexpression style
(e.g., [09]+
).
(This module is 260 lines of Lua code,
and of course it uses LPeg to parse regular expressions and
translate them to regular LPeg patterns.)
FunctionsEdit
lpeg.match (pattern, subject [, init])
Edit
The matching function. It attempts to match the given pattern against the subject string. If the match succeeds, returns the index in the subject of the first character after the match, or the captured values (if the pattern captured any value).
An optional numeric argument init
makes the match
start at that position in the subject string.
As usual in Lua libraries,
a negative value counts from the end.
Unlike typical patternmatching functions,
match
works only in anchored mode;
that is, it tries to match the pattern with a prefix of
the given subject string (at position init
),
not with an arbitrary substring of the subject.
So, if we want to find a pattern anywhere in a string,
we must either write a loop in Lua or write a pattern that
matches anywhere.
This second approach is easy and quite efficient;
see Examples.
lpeg.type (value)
Edit
If the given value is a pattern,
returns the string "pattern"
.
Otherwise returns nil.
lpeg.version ()
Edit
Returns a string with the running version of LPeg.
lpeg.setmaxstack (max)
Edit
Sets the maximum size for the backtrack stack used by LPeg to track calls and choices. Most wellwritten patterns need little backtrack levels and therefore you seldom need to change this maximum; but a few useful patterns may need more space. Before changing this maximum you should try to rewrite your pattern to avoid the need for extra space.
Basic ConstructionsEdit
The following operations build patterns.
All operations that expect a pattern as an argument
may receive also strings, tables, numbers, booleans, or functions,
which are translated to patterns according to
the rules of function lpeg.P
.
lpeg.P (value)
Edit
Converts the given value into a proper pattern, according to the following rules:
 If the argument is a pattern, it is returned unmodified.
 If the argument is a string, it is translated to a pattern that matches the string literally.
 If the argument is a nonnegative number n, the result is a pattern that matches exactly n characters.
 If the argument is a negative number n, the result is a pattern that succeeds only if the input string has less than n characters left:
lpeg.P(n)
is equivalent tolpeg.P(n)
(see the unary minus operation).  If the argument is a boolean, the result is a pattern that always succeeds or always fails (according to the boolean value), without consuming any input.
 If the argument is a table, it is interpreted as a grammar (see Grammars).
 If the argument is a function, returns a pattern equivalent to a matchtime capture over the empty string.
lpeg.B(patt)
Edit
Returns a pattern that
matches only if the input string at the current position
is preceded by patt
.
Pattern patt
must match only strings
with some fixed length,
and it cannot contain captures.
Like the and predicate, this pattern never consumes any input, independently of success or failure.
lpeg.R ({range})
Edit
Returns a pattern that matches any single character
belonging to one of the given ranges.
Each range
is a string xy of length 2,
representing all characters with code
between the codes of x and y
(both inclusive).
As an example, the pattern
lpeg.R("09")
matches any digit,
and lpeg.R("az", "AZ")
matches any ASCII letter.
lpeg.S (string)
Edit
Returns a pattern that matches any single character that
appears in the given string.
(The S
stands for Set.)
As an example, the pattern
lpeg.S("+*/")
matches any arithmetic operator.
Note that, if s
is a character
(that is, a string of length 1),
then lpeg.P(s)
is equivalent to lpeg.S(s)
which is equivalent to lpeg.R(s..s)
.
Note also that both lpeg.S("")
and lpeg.R()
are patterns that always fail.
lpeg.V (v)
Edit
This operation creates a nonterminal (a variable)
for a grammar.
The created nonterminal refers to the rule indexed by v
in the enclosing grammar.
(See Grammars for details.)
lpeg.locale ([table])
Edit
Returns a table with patterns for matching some character classes
according to the current locale.
The table has fields named
alnum
,
alpha
,
cntrl
,
digit
,
graph
,
lower
,
print
,
punct
,
space
,
upper
, and
xdigit
,
each one containing a correspondent pattern.
Each pattern matches any single character that belongs to its class.
If called with an argument table
,
then it creates those fields inside the given table and
returns that table.
#patt
Edit
Returns a pattern that
matches only if the input string matches patt
,
but without consuming any input,
independently of success or failure.
(This pattern is called an and predicate
and it is equivalent to
&patt in the original PEG notation.)
This pattern never produces any capture.
patt
Edit
Returns a pattern that
matches only if the input string does not match patt
.
It does not consume any input,
independently of success or failure.
(This pattern is equivalent to
!patt in the original PEG notation.)
As an example, the pattern
lpeg.P(1)
matches only the end of string.
This pattern never produces any captures,
because either patt
fails
or patt
fails.
(A failing pattern never produces captures.)
patt1 + patt2
Edit
Returns a pattern equivalent to an ordered choice
of patt1
and patt2
.
(This is denoted by patt1 / patt2 in the original PEG notation,
not to be confused with the /
operation in LPeg.)
It matches either patt1
or patt2
,
with no backtracking once one of them succeeds.
The identity element for this operation is the pattern
lpeg.P(false)
,
which always fails.
If both patt1
and patt2
are
character sets,
this operation is equivalent to set union.
lower = lpeg.R("az")
upper = lpeg.R("AZ")
letter = lower + upper
patt1  patt2
Edit
Returns a pattern equivalent to !patt2 patt1.
This pattern asserts that the input does not match
patt2
and then matches patt1
.
When successful,
this pattern produces all captures from patt1
.
It never produces any capture from patt2
(as either patt2
fails or
patt1  patt2
fails).
If both patt1
and patt2
are
character sets,
this operation is equivalent to set difference.
Note that patt
is equivalent to ""  patt
(or 0  patt
).
If patt
is a character set,
1  patt
is its complement.
patt1 * patt2
Edit
Returns a pattern that matches patt1
and then matches patt2
,
starting where patt1
finished.
The identity element for this operation is the
pattern lpeg.P(true)
,
which always succeeds.
(LPeg uses the *
operator
[instead of the more obvious ..
]
both because it has
the right priority and because in formal languages it is
common to use a dot for denoting concatenation.)
patt^n
Edit
If n
is nonnegative,
this pattern is
equivalent to patt^{n} patt*:
It matches n
or more occurrences of patt
.
Otherwise, when n
is negative,
this pattern is equivalent to (patt?)^{n}:
It matches at most n
occurrences of patt
.
In particular, patt^0
is equivalent to patt*,
patt^1
is equivalent to patt+,
and patt^1
is equivalent to patt?
in the original PEG notation.
In all cases,
the resulting pattern is greedy with no backtracking
(also called a possessive repetition).
That is, it matches only the longest possible sequence
of matches for patt
.
GrammarsEdit
With the use of Lua variables, it is possible to define patterns incrementally, with each new pattern using previously defined ones. However, this technique does not allow the definition of recursive patterns. For recursive patterns, we need real grammars.
LPeg represents grammars with tables, where each entry is a rule.
The call lpeg.V(v)
creates a pattern that represents the nonterminal
(or variable) with index v
in a grammar.
Because the grammar still does not exist when
this function is evaluated,
the result is an open reference to the respective rule.
A table is fixed when it is converted to a pattern
(either by calling lpeg.P
or by using it wherein a
pattern is expected).
Then every open reference created by lpeg.V(v)
is corrected to refer to the rule indexed by v
in the table.
When a table is fixed, the result is a pattern that matches its initial rule. The entry with index 1 in the table defines its initial rule. If that entry is a string, it is assumed to be the name of the initial rule. Otherwise, LPeg assumes that the entry 1 itself is the initial rule.
As an example, the following grammar matches strings of a's and b's that have the same number of a's and b's:
equalcount = lpeg.P{
"S";  initial rule name
S = "a" * lpeg.V"B" + "b" * lpeg.V"A" + "",
A = "a" * lpeg.V"S" + "b" * lpeg.V"A" * lpeg.V"A",
B = "b" * lpeg.V"S" + "a" * lpeg.V"B" * lpeg.V"B",
} * 1
It is equivalent to the following grammar in standard PEG notation:
S < 'a' B / 'b' A / A < 'a' S / 'b' A A B < 'b' S / 'a' B B
CapturesEdit
A capture is a pattern that creates values (the so called semantic information) when it matches. LPeg offers several kinds of captures, which produces values based on matches and combine these values to produce new values. Each capture may produce zero or more values.
The following table summarizes the basic captures:
Operation  What it Produces 

lpeg.C(patt)

the match for patt plus all captures made by patt

lpeg.Carg(n)

the value of the n^{th} extra argument to lpeg.match (matches the empty string)

lpeg.Cb(name)

the values produced by the previous group capture named name (matches the empty string)

lpeg.Cc(values)

the given values (matches the empty string) 
lpeg.Cf(patt, func)

a folding of the captures from patt

lpeg.Cg(patt [, name])

the values produced by patt , optionally tagged with name

lpeg.Cp()

the current position (matches the empty string) 
lpeg.Cs(patt)

the match for patt with the values from nested captures replacing their matches

lpeg.Ct(patt)

a table with all captures from patt

patt / string

string , with some marks replaced by captures of patt

patt / number

the nth value captured by patt , or no value when number is zero.

patt / table

table[c] , where c is the (first) capture of patt

patt / function

the returns of function applied to the captures of patt

lpeg.Cmt(patt, function)

the returns of function applied to the captures of patt ; the application is done at match time

A capture pattern produces its values every time it succeeds.
For instance,
a capture inside a loop produces as many values as matched by the loop.
A capture produces a value only when it succeeds.
For instance,
the pattern lpeg.C(lpeg.P"a"^1)
produces the empty string when there is no "a"
(because the pattern "a"?
succeeds),
while the pattern lpeg.C("a")^1
does not produce any value when there is no "a"
(because the pattern "a"
fails).
Usually, LPeg evaluates all captures only after (and if) the entire match succeeds. During match time it only gathers enough information to produce the capture values later. As a particularly important consequence, most captures cannot affect the way a pattern matches a subject. The only exception to this rule is the socalled matchtime capture. When a matchtime capture matches, it forces the immediate evaluation of all its nested captures and then calls its corresponding function, which defines whether the match succeeds and also what values are produced.
lpeg.C (patt)
Edit
Creates a simple capture,
which captures the substring of the subject that matches patt
.
The captured value is a string.
If patt
has other captures,
their values are returned after this one.
lpeg.Carg (n)
Edit
Creates an argument capture.
This pattern matches the empty string and
produces the value given as the n^{th} extra
argument given in the call to lpeg.match
.
lpeg.Cb(name)
Edit
Creates a back capture.
This pattern matches the empty string and
produces the values produced by the most recent
group capture named name
.
Most recent means the last complete outermost group capture with the given name. A Complete capture means that the entire pattern corresponding to the capture has matched. An Outermost capture means that the capture is not inside another complete capture.
lpeg.Cc ([value, ...])
Edit
Creates a constant capture. This pattern matches the empty string and produces all given values as its captured values.
lpeg.Cf (patt, func)
Edit
Creates a fold capture.
If patt
produces a list of captures
C_{1} C_{2} ... C_{n},
this capture will produce the value
func(...func(func(C_{1}, C_{2}), C_{3})..., C_{n}),
that is, it will fold
(or accumulate, or reduce)
the captures from patt
using function func
.
This capture assumes that patt
should produce
at least one capture with at least one value (of any type),
which becomes the initial value of an accumulator.
(If you need a specific initial value,
you may prefix a constant capture to patt
.)
For each subsequent capture,
LPeg calls func
with this accumulator as the first argument and all values produced
by the capture as extra arguments;
the first result from this call
becomes the new value for the accumulator.
The final value of the accumulator becomes the captured value.
As an example, the following pattern matches a list of numbers separated by commas and returns their addition:
 matches a numeral and captures its numerical value
number = lpeg.R"09"^1 / tonumber
 matches a list of numbers, capturing their values
list = number * ("," * number)^0
 auxiliary function to add two numbers
function add (acc, newvalue) return acc + newvalue end
 folds the list of numbers adding them
sum = lpeg.Cf(list, add)
 example of use
print(sum:match("10,30,43")) > 83
lpeg.Cg (patt [, name])
Edit
Creates a group capture.
It groups all values returned by patt
into a single capture.
The group may be anonymous (if no name is given)
or named with the given name.
An anonymous group serves to join values from several captures into a single capture. A named group has a different behavior. In most situations, a named group returns no values at all. Its values are only relevant for a following back capture or when used inside a table capture.
lpeg.Cp ()
Edit
Creates a position capture. It matches the empty string and captures the position in the subject where the match occurs. The captured value is a number.
lpeg.Cs (patt)
Edit
Creates a substitution capture,
which captures the substring of the subject that matches patt
,
with substitutions.
For any capture inside patt
with a value,
the substring that matched the capture is replaced by the capture value
(which should be a string).
The final captured value is the string resulting from
all replacements.
lpeg.Ct (patt)
Edit
Creates a table capture.
This capture creates a table and puts all values from all anonymous captures
made by patt
inside this table in successive integer keys,
starting at 1.
Moreover,
for each named capture group created by patt
,
the first value of the group is put into the table
with the group name as its key.
The captured value is only the table.
patt / string
Edit
Creates a string capture.
It creates a capture string based on string
.
The captured value is a copy of string
,
except that the character %
works as an escape character:
any sequence in string
of the form %n
,
with n between 1 and 9,
stands for the match of the nth capture in patt
.
The sequence %0
stands for the whole match.
The sequence %%
stands for a single %
.
patt / number
Edit
Creates a numbered capture.
For a nonzero number,
the captured value is the nth value
captured by patt
.
When number
is zero,
there are no captured values.
patt / table
Edit
Creates a query capture.
It indexes the given table using as key the first value captured by
patt
,
or the whole match if patt
produced no value.
The value at that index is the final value of the capture.
If the table does not have that key,
there is no captured value.
patt / function
Edit
Creates a function capture.
It calls the given function passing all captures made by
patt
as arguments,
or the whole match if patt
made no capture.
The values returned by the function
are the final values of the capture.
In particular,
if function
returns no value,
there is no captured value.
lpeg.Cmt(patt, function)
Edit
Creates a matchtime capture.
Unlike all other captures,
this one is evaluated immediately when a match occurs.
It forces the immediate evaluation of all its nested captures
and then calls function
.
The given function gets as arguments the entire subject,
the current position (after the match of patt
),
plus any capture values produced by patt
.
The first value returned by function
defines how the match happens.
If the call returns a number,
the match succeeds
and the returned number becomes the new current position.
(Assuming a subject s and current position i,
the returned number must be in the range [i, len(s) + 1].)
If the call returns true,
the match succeeds without consuming any input.
(So, to return true is equivalent to return i.)
If the call returns false, nil, or no value,
the match fails.
Any extra values returned by the function become the values produced by the capture.
Some ExamplesEdit
Using a PatternEdit
This example shows a very simple but complete program that builds and uses a pattern:
local lpeg = LPeg ()
 matches a word followed by endofstring
p = lpeg.R"az"^1 * 1
print(p:match("hello")) > 6
print(lpeg.match(p, "hello")) > 6
print(p:match("1 hello")) > nil
The pattern is simply a sequence of one or more lowercase letters
followed by the end of string (1).
The program calls match
both as a method
and as a function.
In both sucessful cases,
the match returns
the index of the first character after the match,
which is the string length plus one.
Namevalue listsEdit
This example parses a list of namevalue pairs and returns a table with those pairs:
lpeg.locale(lpeg)  adds locale entries into 'lpeg' table
local space = lpeg.space^0
local name = lpeg.C(lpeg.alpha^1) * space
local sep = lpeg.S(",;") * space
local pair = lpeg.Cg(name * "=" * space * name) * sep^1
local list = lpeg.Cf(lpeg.Ct("") * pair^0, rawset)
t = list:match("a=b, c = hi; next = pi") > { a = "b", c = "hi", next = "pi" }
Each pair has the format name = name
followed by
an optional separator (a comma or a semicolon).
The pair
pattern encloses the pair in a group pattern,
so that the names become the values of a single capture.
The list
pattern then folds these captures.
It starts with an empty table,
created by a table capture matching an empty string;
then for each capture (a pair of names) it applies rawset
over the accumulator (the table) and the capture values (the pair of names).
rawset
returns the table itself,
so the accumulator is always the table.
Splitting a stringEdit
The following code builds a pattern that
splits a string using a given pattern
sep
as a separator:
function split (s, sep)
sep = lpeg.P(sep)
local elem = lpeg.C((1  sep)^0)
local p = elem * (sep * elem)^0
return lpeg.match(p, s)
end
First the function ensures that sep
is a proper pattern.
The pattern elem
is a repetition of zero of more
arbitrary characters as long as there is not a match against
the separator.
It also captures its match.
The pattern p
matches a list of elements separated
by sep
.
If the split results in too many values, it may overflow the maximum number of values that can be returned by a Lua function. In this case, we can collect these values in a table:
function split (s, sep)
sep = lpeg.P(sep)
local elem = lpeg.C((1  sep)^0)
local p = lpeg.Ct(elem * (sep * elem)^0)  make a table capture
return lpeg.match(p, s)
end
Searching for a patternEdit
The primitive match
works only in anchored mode.
If we want to find a pattern anywhere in a string,
we must write a pattern that matches anywhere.
Because patterns are composable,
we can write a function that,
given any arbitrary pattern p
,
returns a new pattern that searches for p
anywhere in a string.
There are several ways to do the search.
One way is like this:
function anywhere (p)
return lpeg.P{ p + 1 * lpeg.V(1) }
end
This grammar has a straight reading:
it matches p
or skips one character and tries again.
If we want to know where the pattern is in the string (instead of knowing only that it is there somewhere), we can add position captures to the pattern:
local I = lpeg.Cp()
function anywhere (p)
return lpeg.P{ I * p * I + 1 * lpeg.V(1) }
end
print(anywhere("world"):match("hello world!")) > 7 12
Another option for the search is like this:
local I = lpeg.Cp()
function anywhere (p)
return (1  lpeg.P(p))^0 * I * p * I
end
Again the pattern has a straight reading:
it skips as many characters as possible while not matching p
,
and then matches p
(plus appropriate captures).
If we want to look for a pattern only at word boundaries, we can use the following transformer:
local t = lpeg.locale()
function atwordboundary (p)
return lpeg.P{
[1] = p + t.alpha^0 * (1  t.alpha)^1 * lpeg.V(1)
}
end
Balanced parenthesesEdit
The following pattern matches only strings with balanced parentheses:
b = lpeg.P{ "(" * ((1  lpeg.S"()") + lpeg.V(1))^0 * ")" }
Reading the first (and only) rule of the given grammar,
we have that a balanced string is
an open parenthesis,
followed by zero or more repetitions of either
a nonparenthesis character or
a balanced string (lpeg.V(1)
),
followed by a closing parenthesis.
Global substitutionEdit
The next example does a job somewhat similar to string.gsub
.
It receives a pattern and a replacement value,
and substitutes the replacement value for all occurrences of the pattern
in a given string:
function gsub (s, patt, repl)
patt = lpeg.P(patt)
patt = lpeg.Cs((patt / repl + 1)^0)
return lpeg.match(patt, s)
end
As in string.gsub
,
the replacement value can be a string,
a function, or a table.
CommaSeparated Values (CSV)Edit
This example breaks a string into commaseparated values, returning all fields:
local field = '"' * lpeg.Cs(((lpeg.P(1)  '"') + lpeg.P'""' / '"')^0) * '"' +
lpeg.C((1  lpeg.S',\n"')^0)
local record = field * (',' * field)^0 * (lpeg.P'\n' + 1)
function csv (s)
return lpeg.match(record, s)
end
A field is either a quoted field (which may contain any character except an individual quote, which may be written as two quotes that are replaced by one) or an unquoted field (which cannot contain commas, newlines, or quotes). A record is a list of fields separated by commas, ending with a newline or the string end (1).
As it is,
the previous pattern returns each field as a separated result.
If we add a table capture in the definition of record
,
the pattern will return instead a single table
containing all fields:
local record = lpeg.Ct(field * (',' * field)^0) * (lpeg.P'\n' + 1)
UTF8 and Latin 1Edit
It is not difficult to use LPeg to convert a string from UTF8 encoding to Latin 1 (ISO 88591):
 convert a twobyte UTF8 sequence to a Latin 1 character
local function f2 (s)
local c1, c2 = string.byte(s, 1, 2)
return string.char(c1 * 64 + c2  12416)
end
local utf8 = lpeg.R("\0\127")
+ lpeg.R("\194\195") * lpeg.R("\128\191") / f2
local decode_pattern = lpeg.Cs(utf8^0) * 1
In this code, the definition of UTF8 is already restricted to the Latin 1 range (from 0 to 255). Any encoding outside this range (as well as any invalid encoding) will not match that pattern.
As the definition of decode_pattern
demands that
the pattern matches the whole input (because of the 1 at its end),
any invalid string will simply fail to match,
without any useful information about the problem.
We can improve this situation redefining decode_pattern
as follows:
local function er (_, i) error("invalid encoding at position " .. i) end
local decode_pattern = lpeg.Cs(utf8^0) * (1 + lpeg.P(er))
Now, if the pattern utf8^0
stops
before the end of the string,
an appropriate error function is called.
UTF8 and UnicodeEdit
We can extend the previous patterns to handle all Unicode code points. Of course, we cannot translate them to Latin 1 or any other onebyte encoding. Instead, our translation results in a array with the code points represented as numbers. The full code is here:
 decode a twobyte UTF8 sequence
local function f2 (s)
local c1, c2 = string.byte(s, 1, 2)
return c1 * 64 + c2  12416
end
 decode a threebyte UTF8 sequence
local function f3 (s)
local c1, c2, c3 = string.byte(s, 1, 3)
return (c1 * 64 + c2) * 64 + c3  925824
end
 decode a fourbyte UTF8 sequence
local function f4 (s)
local c1, c2, c3, c4 = string.byte(s, 1, 4)
return ((c1 * 64 + c2) * 64 + c3) * 64 + c4  63447168
end
local cont = lpeg.R("\128\191")  continuation byte
local utf8 = lpeg.R("\0\127") / string.byte
+ lpeg.R("\194\223") * cont / f2
+ lpeg.R("\224\239") * cont * cont / f3
+ lpeg.R("\240\244") * cont * cont * cont / f4
local decode_pattern = lpeg.Ct(utf8^0) * 1
Lua's long stringsEdit
A long string in Lua starts with the pattern [=*[
and ends at the first occurrence of ]=*]
with
exactly the same number of equal signs.
If the opening brackets are followed by a newline,
this newline is discarded
(that is, it is not part of the string).
To match a long string in Lua, the pattern must capture the first repetition of equal signs and then, whenever it finds a candidate for closing the string, check whether it has the same number of equal signs.
equals = lpeg.P"="^0
open = "[" * lpeg.Cg(equals, "init") * "[" * lpeg.P"\n"^1
close = "]" * lpeg.C(equals) * "]"
closeeq = lpeg.Cmt(close * lpeg.Cb("init"), function (s, i, a, b) return a == b end)
string = open * lpeg.C((lpeg.P(1)  closeeq)^0) * close / 1
The open
pattern matches [=*[
,
capturing the repetitions of equal signs in a group named init
;
it also discharges an optional newline, if present.
The close
pattern matches ]=*]
,
also capturing the repetitions of equal signs.
The closeeq
pattern first matches close
;
then it uses a back capture to recover the capture made
by the previous open
,
which is named init
;
finally it uses a matchtime capture to check
whether both captures are equal.
The string
pattern starts with an open
,
then it goes as far as possible until matching closeeq
,
and then matches the final close
.
The final numbered capture simply discards
the capture made by close
.
Arithmetic expressionsEdit
This example is a complete parser and evaluator for simple arithmetic expressions. We write it in two styles. The first approach first builds a syntax tree and then traverses this tree to compute the expression value:
 Lexical Elements
local Space = lpeg.S(" \n\t")^0
local Number = lpeg.C(lpeg.P""^1 * lpeg.R("09")^1) * Space
local TermOp = lpeg.C(lpeg.S("+")) * Space
local FactorOp = lpeg.C(lpeg.S("*/")) * Space
local Open = "(" * Space
local Close = ")" * Space
 Grammar
local Exp, Term, Factor = lpeg.V"Exp", lpeg.V"Term", lpeg.V"Factor"
G = lpeg.P{ Exp,
Exp = lpeg.Ct(Term * (TermOp * Term)^0);
Term = lpeg.Ct(Factor * (FactorOp * Factor)^0);
Factor = Number + Open * Exp * Close;
}
G = Space * G * 1
 Evaluator
function eval (x)
if type(x) == "string" then
return tonumber(x)
else
local op1 = eval(x[1])
for i = 2, #x, 2 do
local op = x[i]
local op2 = eval(x[i + 1])
if (op == "+") then op1 = op1 + op2
elseif (op == "") then op1 = op1  op2
elseif (op == "*") then op1 = op1 * op2
elseif (op == "/") then op1 = op1 / op2
end
end
return op1
end
end
 Parser/Evaluator
function evalExp (s)
local t = lpeg.match(G, s)
if not t then error("syntax error", 2) end
return eval(t)
end
 small example
print(evalExp"3 + 5*9 / (1+1)  12") > 13.5
The second style computes the expression value on the fly, without building the syntax tree. The following grammar takes this approach. (It assumes the same lexical elements as before.)
 Auxiliary function
function eval (v1, op, v2)
if (op == "+") then return v1 + v2
elseif (op == "") then return v1  v2
elseif (op == "*") then return v1 * v2
elseif (op == "/") then return v1 / v2
end
end
 Grammar
local V = lpeg.V
G = lpeg.P{ "Exp",
Exp = lpeg.Cf(V"Term" * lpeg.Cg(TermOp * V"Term")^0, eval);
Term = lpeg.Cf(V"Factor" * lpeg.Cg(FactorOp * V"Factor")^0, eval);
Factor = Number / tonumber + Open * V"Exp" * Close;
}
 small example
print(lpeg.match(G, "3 + 5*9 / (1+1)  12")) > 13.5
Note the use of the fold (accumulator) capture.
To compute the value of an expression,
the accumulator starts with the value of the first term,
and then applies eval
over
the accumulator, the operator,
and the new term for each repetition.
DownloadEdit
LPeg source code.
LicenseEdit
Copyright © 2013 Lua.org, PUCRio.
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.